The first loop of silicon industry chain is to extract industrial silicon from silica which the executive and construction operation of Araz Industrial Silicon Factory with the annual capacity of 50,000 tones has begun form Shahrivar 1399 (August 22 – September 20, 2020) and the first products of this company will enter the market in Spring of 2022. The land for implementing the project is located at 2nd Phase of Khoy Industrial Park and its area is more than 171,000m2. The second loop in silicon industry chain of Araz Silicon Industries Company is to construct a silicon production factory with the annual capacity of 10,000 tones and this company has the construction of a silicon wafer production factory with the annual capacity of 1,000 Mega Watt in agenda as well. One of the objectives of the company is to construct a large-scale solar power plant. This company, after production of solar cell and panel with the annual capacity of 750 Mega Watt, has the construction of a solar power plant with its produced panel in agenda. In this line, Azar Silicon Industries Company has signed a memorandum of understanding with Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Organization (SATBA) for constructing and operating a 2,500 Mega Watt solar power plant within maximum period of 4 years. In case of cooperation of Tavnir Company and Regional Electricity Companies, this company has targeted the construction of a 500Mega Watt solar power plant in 2022.
Considering that resources of fossil fuels are limited and using these fuels for generating energy is polluting, this has increased the tendency for using renewable energies. Resources of renewable energies that are used commercially include the sunlight, wind, rain, tide, waves, geothermal and biomass. The solar energy is a main source of renewable energy and techniques of photovoltaic systems, concentrated solar energy and solar water heating are used to harness them. Solar panels can be categorized in three general groups based on production method of their solar cells. These three categories include monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin-film. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline categories function like each other and have similar technology. Both of them use silicon as semi-conductor to generate electrical energy. The major difference between these two types is in the process of producing their wafers. To produce monocrystalline wafers, monocrystalline ingots are used. Whereas, to produce polycrystalline wafers, melting silicon crystals and producing polycrystalline ingot are used.
Polycrystalline panels are seen in blue. Whereas, monocrystalline panels are seen in black. Monocrystalline cells, also, are not usually in the form of complete rectangles and do not have corners. Whereas, polycrystalline cells are seen as complete rectangles. Conversion coefficient of solar energy to electrical energy (panel yield) is greater in monocrystalline panels than other types of panel. Thus, panels produced in this project are of monocrystalline type. Thin-film: is the second generation of solar cells which is produced by putting one or several thin layers or covers of photovoltaic materials on a layer of glass, plastic or metal. In commercial terms, thin-film solar cells are produced using various technologies which among the materials used to make thin-film cells are cadmium telluride, gallium indium selenide, copper and amorphous, and other thin-walled silicones. The thickness of the cover ranges from few nanometers to tens of micrometers and is much thinner than the old technology and the first generation of silicon crystal solar cells which use silicon wafers up to 200 micrometers. This makes thin-film cells be flexible and have lower weight and air resistance force. This technology is used in photovoltaic systems integrated with the building and is, also, used as photovoltaic glass semitransparent materials for covering the windows. Thin-film technology is cheaper than the old silicon technology but is less efficient than that.
Solar Panel Stats
The goal of this project is to create a solar panel production factory with the following specifications:
⦁ Panel capacity: 660 Watt
⦁ Panel productivity: 21.2%
⦁ Cell type: monocrystalline (there is also the ability to produce panel with polycrystalline cell)
⦁ Cells layout: 132 [2 x 11 x 6]
⦁ Panel dimensions: 2384 x 1303 x 35 mm
⦁ Panel weight: 34.4 Kg
Nominal production capacity of this factory is 750 Mega Watt per annum which will be in production in 3 shifts and in all 365 days of the year.
There are three main components in solar panel production line.
⦁ Stringer machines: the most complicated and the most expensive machine in solar panel production line is stringer which the task to connect the cells together is carried out by this machine.
⦁ Laminator machines: the heaviest and the most expensive machine after stringer machine is laminator machine which has the task to laminate the panels.
⦁ Moving line and the rest of machines: the rest of machines including control and assembly machines of the production line constitute the third part. Most of these machines are automatic and work without manpower and their speed is much higher than stringer and laminator but because quality control stations are located between the production line, which are heavily impacted by manpower, the line speed is decreased.